We while others have shown that RGS2 is highly expressed in the cell bodies of midbrain dopaminergic neurons where D2Rs (autoreceptors) are located (Calipari et al
We while others have shown that RGS2 is highly expressed in the cell bodies of midbrain dopaminergic neurons where D2Rs (autoreceptors) are located (Calipari et al., 2014; Labouebe et al., 2007). the early and the recycling endosome inside a time-dependent manner in control cells whereas translocation of -arrestin to these endosomes did not happen in RGS2 knockdown cells. The impaired -arrestin translocation likely contributed to the abolishment of quinpirole-stimulated D2R Fulvestrant S enantiomer internalization in RGS2 knockdown cells. 1. Intro Dysfunctional dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) are implicated in numerous neurological and psychiatric diseases. Agonists or antagonists of D2Rs have been used for the treatment of Parkinsons disease and schizophrenia [observe review in (Beaulieu and Gainetdinov, 2011)]. Therefore, it is important to understand the rules of D2R function. D2Rs are coupled to inhibitory Gi/o proteins to produce intracellular signaling (Neve et al., 2004). Activation of Gi/o proteins by D2R agonists promotes the exchange of GDP to GTP within the G subunit and subsequent dissociation of G proteins into G and G subunits, which take action on numerous downstream effectors to produce differential cellular and behavioral reactions. For example, Rabbit Polyclonal to C-RAF (phospho-Thr269) the inhibitory Gi/o subunit couples to adenylyl cyclase to Fulvestrant S enantiomer inhibit cAMP production whereas the G subunit stimulates the MAPK signaling cascade. The degree and duration of D2R signaling is Fulvestrant S enantiomer definitely critically controlled from the family of regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins that limit G protein activity (Masuho et al., 2013). All RGS proteins contain a RGS website which binds directly to the triggered G subunit to facilitate GTP hydrolysis, thus rapidly terminating G protein signaling and receptor reactions (Hepler, 1999; Watson et al., 1996). You will find more than 20 subtypes of RGS proteins that are distributed inside a mind region- and neuron-dependent manner (Platinum et al., 1997; Hooks et al., 2008), suggesting that modulation of GPCR signaling by RGS proteins may be receptor-type and mind region-specific. The majority of D2Rs are localized on postsynaptic non-dopaminergic neurons in the striatum and perform an important part in engine function [observe evaluate in (Beaulieu and Gainetdinov, 2011)]. Among the users of the RGS family, RGS4, RGS7 and RGS9 are enriched in striatum (Mancuso et al., 2010; McGinty et al., 2008) and have been shown to directly regulate D2R signaling in heterologous manifestation systems. For example, RGS9 dose-dependently reduces dopamine-stimulated activation of Gi/o proteins in Fulvestrant S enantiomer HEK293 cells stably expressing D2Rs (Masuho et al., 2013). RGS4 overexpression reduces the ability of quinpirole (a D2R/D3R agonist) to inhibit forskolin-stimulated cAMP production in HEK293 cells (Min et al., 2012). Furthermore, there is compelling evidence that RGS9 settings striatal postsynaptic D2R activity and connected engine function (Kovoor et al., 2005; Rahman et al., 2003). In addition to their enriched manifestation in striatum, D2Rs will also be present within the somas and dendrites of midbrain dopamine neurons (Sesack et al., 1994). These receptors serve as autoreceptors to provide negative opinions inhibition Fulvestrant S enantiomer of dopamine transmission in the synapse (Bello et al., 2011; Mercuri et al., 1997). Compared to striatal postsynaptic D2Rs, the rules of midbrain D2R signaling by RGS proteins has yet to be examined. Given the differential distribution patterns of RGS subtypes in the brain, it is likely the function of midbrain D2Rs (autoreceptors) is definitely controlled by RGS subtypes other than RGS9 proteins because RGS9 is not indicated in dopaminergic neurons (Mancuso et al.,.