Other factors, including the cell subsets on which the Fc receptors in MM are found as well as the expression level of the Fc receptors on those cell subsets will impact antibody activity, and may differ from humans
Other factors, including the cell subsets on which the Fc receptors in MM are found as well as the expression level of the Fc receptors on those cell subsets will impact antibody activity, and may differ from humans. possessed relatively uniform and high binding affinity, which may suggest the importance of the preserving this conversation immunologically. While these extracellular domain name polymorphisms clearly expose some significant differences between humans and MM, these studies provide only a partial measure of FcR functionality. Other factors, including the cell subsets on which the Fc receptors in MM are found as well as the expression level of the Fc receptors on those cell subsets will impact antibody activity, and may differ from humans. For example, FcR3B is found on human neutrophils, but MM are not known to possess this GPI-linked FcR, nor has FcR3A been observed on MM neutrophils (14). As for FcR2A and FcR2B, much remains unknown about expression levels on various cell subsets in rhesus macaques, but studies conducted in pig-tailed macaque (outcomes. Moreover, immune complexes, rather than individual antibody molecules as were studied here, likely mediate the functional effect of receptor polymorphisms. To fully appreciate the functional difference of Fc receptor polymorphisms, additional functional studies are needed. Furthermore, prospective design of monkey study cohorts used for vaccine and/or challenge experiments may provide key insights as to the role of these polymorphisms. Overall, the receptor binding profiling conducted here supports the design of passive transfer or vaccine studies that would balance FcR genotype distribution across study arms. In addition to finding interspecies differences among FcR, we also observed that this MM IgG subclasses differed dramatically from human IgG subclasses, as has been shown for other nonhuman primates (13). As in MF, MM IgG2 and IgG4 generally retain FcR binding capacity similar to other subclasses, unlike their human counterparts. Additionally, Ginsenoside Rh3 in contrast to human IgG, MM IgG3, which lacks the characteristically extended hinge region observed in human IgG3, does not appear to exhibit potentiated FcR binding. Together, these subclass differences point to striking differences in antibody biology between species. Indeed, because IgG subclass selection in humans has been found to correlate with vaccine efficacy and the polyfunctional profile of vaccine-elicited antibodies (28, 29), the lack of direct subclass:function correspondence with MM (Boesch et al, manuscript in Ginsenoside Rh3 preparation) likely poses some limitations to translational studies. It will be interesting to determine the arrangement of the IGHG locus in MM and gain further insight into serum levels of each MM subclass. Significantly, while the studies described here capture differences among macaque subclasses, it is important to note that these results were generated with recombinantly produced IgG of only one allotype of each IgG subclass, while significant allotypic sequence diversity within IgG subclasses may be expected given a small study that identified MM IgG2 and IgG4 polymorphisms (10, 11). Because recombinantly-produced IgG tends to exhibit a different Fc glycosylation profile than plasma IgG (30), our reliance on recombinant MM IgG may also impact the relevance of our findings to naturally raised antibody responses. Consistent with findings in cynomolgus macaques, in which all four subclasses were found to be relatively more uniformly functionally active and to bind to FcR with affinities that generally varied within several fold, as compared to human IgG subclasses that often demonstrate order of magnitude shifts in affinity and multi-order of magnitude differences in functional assays (13), we observed a relatively more uniform activity profile. Consistent with sequence-based evidence that this rhesus macaque subclasses resulted from duplication events subsequent to the Ginsenoside Rh3 evolutionary branchpoint from humans, rhesus macaques apparently do not possess rigid functional equivalents of human IgG2, IgG3, or IgG4. While we observed MM IgG3 and IgG4 to have generally lower affinity than MM IgG1 and IgG2, this difference was relatively smaller than that typically observed among human subclasses, and overall, all NHP subclasses MLLT7 appear to be functionally qualified (13)(Boesch et al, manuscript in preparation). In general, we found there was at least one major rhesus macaque FcR allotype with an IgG recognition profile similar to one or more human allotypes, but not every human allotype appears to be well represented by a macaque variant. These differences, and those noted among IgG subclasses between species (Boesch et al, manuscript in preparation) have potentially significant impacts on the outcome of passive transfer and vaccine studies, and.