Nevertheless, swab application of QX-314 significantly suppressed mechanical allodynia on day 1. 15-deoxy12,14-prostaglandin J2 were upregulated only on day 1. In contrast, mechanical allodynia was sensitive to FSLLRY-NH2 (protease-activated receptor PAR2 antagonist) and RN-1734 (TRPV4 antagonist). Neutrophil elastase, which is known as a biased agonist for PAR2, was upregulated on days 1 to 2 2. These results suggest that prostanoids and PAR2 activation elicit TRPV1- and TRPA1-mediated spontaneous pain and TRPV4-mediated mechanical allodynia, respectively, independently of bacterial infection, following oral mucosal trauma. The pathophysiological pain mechanism suggests effective analgesic approaches for dental patients suffering from mucosal trauma-induced pain. test. (g) The oral mucositis score in the WiM model on day 1 following indomethacin (Indo) pretreatment or vehicle (Veh; 0.1?M Tris-buffered saline) (each group, test. (h) Activity of the neutrophil-specific enzyme MPO in the sham and WiM model (each group, test. (i) Representative hematoxylin and eosin-stained microphotographs of the oral mucosa of sham and WiM model rats at days 1 and 3 after the procedure. Scale bar, 500?m. Compared with the sham (represents the number of rats tested. An unpaired Student test was used to compare differences between two different groups Rabbit Polyclonal to STAT1 (phospho-Tyr701) or experimental days. To compare between-group differences in the number of CFUs, the Amsilarotene (TAC-101) Mann-Whitney test was used. Following two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance, the Sidak post hoc test was applied to Amsilarotene (TAC-101) analyze daily or time changes between two different groups. Dunnett post hoc test was applied following one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance to analyze three or more groups. Significance was accepted at test, test, test, test. Importantly, in contrast to the model of acetic acid-induced oral ulcerative mucositis,10 antibiotic pretreatment did not significantly suppress the induction of spontaneous pain and mechanical allodynia in the WiM model (Figure 2(a) and (?(b)).b)). To examine the impact of bacterial loading, we quantified bacterial infections in the traumatic ulcerative region in the model. The numbers of CFUs under aerobic and anaerobic conditions on day 1 were significantly increased approximately 100-fold compared with the healthy oral mucosa of the sham (Mann-Whitney test, test, test, test, test, test. (b) Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) level in the oral mucosa of sham and WiM on day 1 (each group, test. (c) Spontaneous mouth rubbing after swab application of the EP1 antagonist ONO-8711 and Veh (10% dimethylsulfoxide [DMSO] -containing saline) on day 1 (each group, test. (d and e) Prostaglandin E2 and 15-deoxy-12,14-PGJ2 (known as a TRPA1 agonist) levels in the oral mucosa of the sham on day 1 and Amsilarotene (TAC-101) the WiM model on days 1 and 2 (each group, (EP1 gene), (PAR2 gene) in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) of the sham and wire-induced mucositis (WiM) model on day 1 (each group, n?=?4). (c) Head withdrawal threshold by von Frey filaments after swab application of QX-314 and Veh on day 1 at 30?min after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of a mixture of SB-366791 (SB: a TRPV1 antagonist) and HC-030031 (HC: a TRPA1 antagonist) (each group, n?=?6). (d) Representative Ca2+ responses in response to GSK at 100?nM, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) at 1?mM and capsaicin Amsilarotene (TAC-101) (CPS) at 1?M in dissociated trigeminal ganglion neurons of Amsilarotene (TAC-101) rats. All drugs were applied for 2?min, indicated thick-horizontal bars, by bath application. Data analysis was performed only in CPS- sensitive cells and/or 50?mM KCl solution (High K+) sensitive cells, which are confirmed as neurons. (e) Numbers of AITC and CPS-sensitive cells in GSK-sensitive (+) and -negative (?) neurons (n?=?164 and 54, respectively). Many GSK (+) neurons were sensitive to either AITC and/or CPS (60%, n?=?98). There were no significant differences in the mRNA expression levels of EP1, PAR2, TRPV1, TRPA1, and TRPV4 in the.