These results indicate that Korean water deer can be a reservoir of Q fever in humans. NB001 Table 2. Comparison of ELISA and real-time PCR results of in 196 serum samples from wild Korean water deer using an indirect microimmunofluorescence antibody assay . efforts to eradicate coxiellosis from cattle and farm-raised deer, the disease remains a serious risk for human and animal health in Korea [5, 8]. Despite the presence of Q fever in Korea, little is known about its current incidence and geographic distribution in wild animals. Moreover, you will find no reports assessing Q fever in wild animals in the Republic of Korea. contamination in wild Korean water deer in Korea. One hundred ninety-six serum samples were obtained from wild Korean water deer captured in 4 provinces aged over 1 year (Gyeonggi province, 3730N and 12715E; Chungnam province, 3621N and 12723E; Jeonbuk province, 3549N and 12709E; and Jeonnam province, 3510N and 12655E) in the Republic of Korea, from January 2010 to December 2012. Blood samples were collected from your jugular vein into sterile 10 manticoagulant-free Vacutainers (BD Biosciences, Franklin Lakes, NJ, U.S.A.). Serum was separated from your samples and stored at ?20C, until ELISA and real-time PCR were performed. The presence of antibodies against was decided using the ELISA CHEKIT Q-fever test (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, ME, U.S.A.), according to the manufacturers instructions. Briefly, serum samples were prepared at a 1:400 dilution, and specific antibodies consisting of Phase I and II were measured, using a peroxidase labeled anti-ruminant immunoglobulin G conjugate. The results are expressed as a percentage of the optical density (%OD) reading of the test sample, which was calculated as follows: %OD=100 (S ? N)/ (P ? N), where S, N and P are the OD values of the test sample and the negative and positive controls, respectively. On the basis of ELISA, sera were considered to be unfavorable for if the %OD was 30; intermediate, if the %OD was between 30 and 40; and positive, if the %OD was 40 . Statistically significant differences (antibodies. Moreover, 13 (6.63%) of 196 sera were real-time PCR positive for in 196 serum samples from wild Korean water deer of different regions in the Republic of Korea are asymptomatic [9, 10], NB001 appeared as healthy and excrete the microorganism, which serves as a significant source of contamination to humans. In pet cat, 4 (1.3%) out of 310 cases were PCR-positive and were unfavorable by ELISA, reported in Japan . These results indicate that Korean water deer can be a reservoir of Q fever in humans. Table 2. Comparison of ELISA and real-time PCR results of in 196 serum samples from wild Korean water deer using an indirect microimmunofluorescence antibody assay . Recently, 13 of 1 1,000 (1.3%) Mouse monoclonal to CD35.CT11 reacts with CR1, the receptor for the complement component C3b /C4, composed of four different allotypes (160, 190, 220 and 150 kDa). CD35 antigen is expressed on erythrocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, B -lymphocytes and 10-15% of T -lymphocytes. CD35 is caTagorized as a regulator of complement avtivation. It binds complement components C3b and C4b, mediating phagocytosis by granulocytes and monocytes. Application: Removal and reduction of excessive amounts of complement fixing immune complexes in SLE and other auto-immune disorder cattle, 10 of 604 (1.7%) elk and 0 of 30 (0%) Sika deer on farms had antibodies against . Because of scare information around the prevalence of Q fever in farmed and wild animals in Korea, it is hard to NB001 compare these results to the results of this study. Several studies of Q fever contamination in wild animals, including wild ruminants, birds and rodents, have reported a high prevalence of in wildlife in Europe and Japan [2, 3, 9, 13]. On the basis of the results of present and previous studies in the Republic of Korea, Korean water deer have significantly high seroprevalence than domestic Korean cattle and sheep . Therefore, Korean water deer could play a role as a wild reservoir in the epidemiology of Q fever in Korea. Human Q fever is usually more often transmitted by domestic animals, such as cattle and goats, than wild animals. However, the Korean water deer population has recently become so common that the animals are common even in urban areas, resulting in increased contact with humans and domestic animals. Moreover, Korean water deer are the most common rescued wild animal in Korea. In conclusion, this is the first description of Q fever in wild Korean water deer in the Republic of Korea by the detection of antibodies and genomes from 140: 297C309. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.07.016 [PubMed].